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Smith Library: Gen. Educ.

Resources for the WCUI and Smith Chason Los Angeles, Ontario and Phoenix campuses.

Anatomy and Physiology Research Topics

Imaging Modalities  

Cardiovascular Echo Sonography   
Computerized Tomography (CT) 
Diagnostic Medical 
Sonography 
MRI 
Nuclear Medicine  

Positron Emission Tomography  
X-RAY 

Cardiovascular System  

Cardiac Catheterization
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft 
Endarterectomy  
Heart Transplantation 
MRI of the Heart  
Stress Test

Digestive System  

Cholelithiasis  
Cirrhosis  

Hepatitis  
Peptic Ulcers

Female Reproductive System  

Ectopic Pregnancy 
Endometriosis  
Fibroids    
Ovarian Cysts 
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Male Reproductive System  

Hydrocele/Spermatocele  
TURP 
Undescended Testes 

 

Endocrine System  

Cushing Syndrome  
Diabetes Mellitus  
Hyperthyroidism & Hypothyroidism  

Skeletal System  

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  
M
uscular Dystrophy 
Osteoporosis 

Rheumatoid Arthritis 

Nervous System  

Alzheimer Disease  
Epilepsy  
Paraplegia  
Mult
iple Sclerosis  

Respiratory System  

Asthma  
Em
physema  
Pneumonia   
Tuberculosis  

Urinary System  

Nephrolithiasis  
Renal Failure & Dialysis 
Renal Transplantation 

   
And any other topics approved by the instructor

Pathology Research Topics

Cardiovascular System  

Cardiac Catheterization
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft 
Endarterectomy  
Heart Transplantation 
MRI of the Heart  
Stress Test

Digestive System

Cholelithiasis  
Cirrhosis  
Hepatitis  
Peptic Ulcers

Female Reproductive System  

Ectopic Pregnancy 
Endometriosis  
Fibroids    
Ovarian Cysts 
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Male Reproductive System  

Hydrocele/Spermatocele  
TURP 
Undescended Testes 

Endocrine System  

Cushing Syndrome  
Diabetes Mellitus  
Hyperthyroidism & Hypothyroidism  

Skeletal System  

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  
Muscular Dystrophy 
Osteoporosis 
Rheumatoid Arthritis 

Nervous System  

Alzheimer Disease  
Epilepsy  
Paraplegia  
Multiple Sclerosis  

Respiratory System  

Asthma  
Emphysema  
Pneumonia   
Tuberculosis  

Urinary System  

Nephrolithiasis  
Renal Failure & Dialysis 
Renal Transplantation 

And any other topics approved by the instructor

Ethics Learning Resources

Professionalism Mindsets: Build Trust Through Professionalism – Seven Mindsets for Success

Common Spanish Examination Phrases and Terms

English Spanish
What is your name?  Cual es su nombre? 
Lay down please.  Se puede acostar por favor.
How old are you? Cuántos años tiene? 
Where is your pain? Dónde está su dolor?
Are you NPO? Esta en ayunas?
Do you have a full bladder?  Tiene su vejia llena? 
When was your last menstrual period?  Cuándo fue su último período menstrual? 
How many children do you have?  Cuántos hijos tiene usted? 
Have you had any surgeries?  Ha tenido usted alguna cirugía? 
Thank you. Gracias.
You don’t need to undress.  Usted no necesita quitarse la ropa.
You can get dressed. Usted puede vestirse.
Lift up your shirt a little bit.  Levante su camisa un poquito.
Pull down your underwear a little bit, please.  Baje su ropa interior un poquito, por favor.
This is going to be cold.  Va estar frío.
Take a deep breath and hold it.  Respire profundo detengalo.
Breathe normal.  Respire normal. 
Roll onto your left side, please.  Se pone de lado izquierdo, por favor.
Roll onto your right side, please.  Se pone de lado derecho, por favor.
We’re finished, thank you. Somos terminados, gracias.
We're not finished yet. Toda via no terminamos.
This is your...   Esto es su...  
Bladder Vejiga 
Gall bladder  Vesícula 
Heart Corazón 
Kidney   Riñón
Liver Hígado 
Ovaries  Ovarios
Spleen Bazo
Stomach Estómago
Uterus   Matriz 
One Uno
Two Dos
Three Tres
Four Cuatro
Five Cinco

Cirrhosis Awareness August Awareness

Overview

Liver diseases may lead to Cirrhosis, which is the scarring of the liver tissues.  Any chronic liver disease can permanently damage the liver tissues and leave a scar on the liver which is irreversible. The Damage that caused by scars can blocks the blood flow in and out of the liver. Since there is no good flow in the liver, liver cannot process nutrients, hormones, drugs, and natural toxins. As the liver damage and scarring continues, the ability of the liver for protein synthesis and other substances reduces and eventually will lead to liver failure.

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15572-cirrhosis-of-the-liver

Sign & Symptoms

Early stages of Cirrhosis

  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Fever

            

Advance Stages of Cirrhosis

                                                                                                                                     

                                  Jaundice         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ascites                                               

 

Swelling (edema) in legs, feet, and ankles.
 
Blood in stool.
 
Brownish or orange color to your urine.
 
 Light-colored stools.
Confusion, difficulty thinking, memory loss, personality changes.   Spider-like blood vessels that surround small, red spots on your skin (telangiectasias).
In men: loss of sex drive, enlarged breasts (gynecomastia), shrunken testicles.
 
Itchy skin.
 
In men: loss of sex drive, enlarged breasts (gynecomastia), shrunken testicles. Redness in the palms of your hands.
 
In women: premature menopause (no longer having your menstrual period).     Caput medusa a cluster of swollen veins in your abdomen.
 

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15572-cirrhosis-of-the-liver

Diagnosis

Physical exam: Doctors will look at the signs and symptoms of cirrhosis, telangiectasias (red, spider-like blood vessels on skin), Jaundice (yellow color of the skin and sclera), bruise on the skin and many more that can be found under sign and symptoms of this page.                                                     

Blood tests: Signs of the liver damages can be detected in blood by measuring different levels of hormones, proteins, and toxins. Proteins such as albumin and blood clotting factors, the low level of these proteins is indication of liver damage.

Increase Enzyme level (inflammation)   Increase Blood Iron (hemochromatosis)
Autoantibodies (autoimmune hepatitis or primary biliary cirrhosis) Increase Bilirubin (loss of liver function)
Increase White blood cells (infection)   Increase Alpha-fetoprotein (Liver cancer)
increase Creatinine (kidney disease that suggests late-stage cirrhosis) Decrease Sodium (cirrhosis)

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15572-cirrhosis-of-the-liver

Imaging tests: Imaging test show the size, shape, and texture of the liver. These tests can also determine the amount of scarring, the amount of fat in liver and fluid in abdomen.

Computerized Tomography (CT) scan:

                    

Abdominal Ultrasound:

Ultrasound is a major screening tool for cirrhosis and its complications. It is also useful to aid for biopsy. Appearances include:

  • surface nodularity: (88% sensitive, 82-95% specific)
  • Overall coarse and heterogeneous echotexture

https://radiopaedia.org/articles/cirrhosis?lang=us
US images (af). ab Grayscale images showing a cirrhotic liver with uneven surface and periportal fibrosis (yellow arrows). c Grayscale image showing splenomegaly (length = 22 cm). d Color Doppler image showing a cluster of gastro-esophageal porto systemic collaterals (yellow arrows). e Spectral Doppler image tracing the PVV that was 13.9 cm/s (reduced) [Normal = 20–40 cm/s]. f Spectral Doppler image tracing the HAV and HARI, where the HAV is elevated = 80.9 cm/s [Normal = 30–60 cm/s], it also shows abnormal high HARI = 0.73 [Normal = 0.60–0.68]

https://ejrnm.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s43055-020-00344-6

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

MRI is also insensitive in early cirrhosis but has a significant role in screening cirrhotic livers for small HCCs. MRI can be used to measures the fat content and amount of stiffness in liver.

https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/cirrhosis/diagnosis

 

 

When a healthy liver tissue gets damaged or injured, the damage tissue or cells will be swollen and inflamed. The liver will try to repair the damage, repairing the damaged tissue will leave a scar on the liver and as the scar tissues accumulate and built up, it will decrease the functions of the liver and at the end will lead to liver failure.                             

Compensated cirrhosis: asymptomatic, no signs or symptoms related to cirrhosis. Might have evidence of portal hypertension, such as esophageal or gastric varices.

Decompensated cirrhosis: symptomatic, complications related to cirrhosis, Such as hepatic insufficiency (jaundice or hepatic encephalopathy), and those related to portal hypertension (ascites or variceal hemorrhage)

https://www.hepatitisc.uw.edu/go/evaluation-staging-monitoring/evaluation-prognosis-cirrhosis/core-concept/all#background

Stage 1 of cirrhosis: It involves liver scarring with few symptoms. It is considered as a compensated cirrhosis stage with no complications.

Stage 2 of cirrhosis: Portal hypertension is worsened here, and varices develop.

Stage 3 of cirrhosis: Abdominal swelling appears, and the liver scarring becomes advanced. This stage is considered as decompensated cirrhosis and it comes with severe complications and there is a possibility that the liver fails.

Stage 4 of cirrhosis: This stage is life-threatening and can progress into an end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Transplant is the only option here.

https://fattyliverdisease.com/final-stages-of-cirrhosis-of-the-liver/

Treatment

There are no specific treatments for cirrhosis, in most cases damage caused by cirrhosis is irreversible. However, the underlying causes of cirrhosis can be treated to prevent further damage and liver failure.  

  • Weight loss
  • No alcohol consumption
  • Healthy eating
  • Increase physical activity
  • Anti-viral medicine if the damage is due to Hepatitis
  • Immunosuppressant medicine if the underlying reason for cirrhosis is due to autoimmune hepatitis.

For more information click here.

https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/cirrhosis/treatment

When to See a doctor

  • Stools are black and tarry or contain blood (may be maroon or bright red in color).
  • Vomiting blood (Hematemesis)
  • Sclera in turning yellow.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Abnormal swelling.
  • Muscle tremors or shakiness.
  • Feeling confused, irritable, disoriented, sleepy, forgetful or “foggy.”
  • Change in level of consciousness or alertness; or passing out.

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15572-cirrhosis-of-the-liver

CAUSES

                                                                                                                                                                 
 

 

 

 

 

 

Chronic alcohol abuse.
Chronic viral hepatitis B, C, D.
Have diabetes.
Inject drugs using shared needles.
Have a history of liver disease.
Have unprotected sex.
Bile duct damage.

Fact Sheet

  • Cirrhosis of the liver affects about one in 400 adults in the U.S.
  • It affects about 1 in 200 adults aged 45 to 54. (The age group most affected by cirrhosis).
  • Cirrhosis causes about 26,000 deaths each year in the U.S. and is the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S. among adults 25 to 64 years of age.

More information clicks here.

Biology Research Topics

Biotechnology Uses in the Medical Fieldl
Common Heredity and Genetics Disorders in USA, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Signs and Treatmentl
The Dynamic of the Cell
Ecosystems and Interdependence
Evolution and Classification of Animals
Evolution and Natural Selection
Gene Therapy Uses in the Medical Field
Genetic Material in Human
Human Cell Types and Cell Division
Land Environment Plants and Fungi
Medical Use of Fingerprints
Most Common Human Bacterial Diseases
Most Common Human Fungal Diseases
Most Common Human Viral Diseases
Tissue Engineering Use in the Medical Field
Water and Land Animals

And any other topics approved by the instructor

Art Resources

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Interactive Human Anatomy

Technology Tutorials/Courses

Typing Tutors 1

Podcasts

American Sign Language

Smith Library Contact Information

Online support: Carla, Librarian - librarian@wcui.edu

OT onsite support - Karen, Facilities Manager

LA onsite support - Carla, librarian

PH onsite support - Receptionists

Anatomy and Physiology Resources

Math Resources

Physics Resources

Medical Terminology

Open Access Research Databases

Patient Care (Plain language explanations)

RSS Feeds

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Flashcards: Anatomy and Physiology (top), and SPI Physics (bottom), from Studystack.com

                                                                         Anatomy and Physiology (top), and SPI Physics (bottom), from Studystack.com